Category: Healing

Marveling at the Miraculous by Jan Jenkins

A Miracle!

Peter and John are going to the temple to pray when at the temple gate they hear a man calling to them.

It appears that this forty-year-old man is lame and depends on handouts to support his existence in his disabled condition. What the man does not realize is that his condition can actually be changed so that he need not continue to beg.

This story is a reminder that God often sees a greater ailment in our lives that may need changing that is far deeper than what we may be asking or praying for.

Peter stops and tells the man that he does not possess what the man is begging for; however, he does have something far greater. Peter says, “In the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene – walk!” He then grabs the man’s right hand and raises him up.

Luke, the author of the book of Acts writes that “immediately his feet and his ankles were strengthened” (Acts 3:7).

Not only is the man strengthened and upright, but he begins “walking and leaping and praising God” (v.8). People who saw him were astounded because they knew something miraculous had happened, knowing that this man was the one who had been carried daily to the temple gate to plead for sustenance.

Peter’s Message

At this point, Peter answers the amazement of the people by preaching his second recorded sermon. He assures his listeners that faith in the name of Jesus has brought strength and healing to this man (Acts 3:16). He then reminds the people whom God’s prophets had foretold of “this Christ” and that by repenting of their sins they may experience His presence and “times of refreshing.” Consequently, this is a reminder to us that we need to repent and make sure we can approach our Savior with a clear conscience and a clean heart.

Next, the priests and Sadducees who have also been listening to Peter, see to it that John and Peter are arrested since this is the only immediate way they can keep them from speaking the truth.

In spite of this arrest, as many as 5,000 men who had heard the message believed! When given the opportunity to testify the next day, Peter again states that the man (who is standing there next to Peter) was made well “by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead” (Acts 4:10).

Peter tells the high priest and the others of “high priestly descent” that there is salvation only through Jesus. Peter’s words are a reminder that it is through the power of the mighty name of Jesus that we are made whole. Not our good works, our power, our religious knowledge, or our social or political standing.

Peter’s message leaves these educated leaders speechless, and they are unable to reply. They begin to talk among themselves, trying to decide what should be done with Peter and the other men with him. They even admit that a “noteworthy miracle” has happened, and therefore they “cannot deny it” (Acts 4:16). In a feeble effort to control Peter and John, they command them not to do any further teaching about Jesus. They answer by saying that it is impossible for them to stop speaking about what they have “seen and heard.”

It is natural for us to want to share our experiences with others, whether they involve a fabulous vacation, a newborn baby, or career advancement. How much greater is the urge to share the good news of salvation and healing to those who are seeking answers or to those in perilous situations.

So, what did the officials do? They “threatened them further” (Acts 4:21), but their threats were empty. They couldn’t punish Peter and John because of the crowds of people glorifying God! When the apostles were finally released, they went back to their companions to report what had happened to them. Additionally, they prayed together asking to speak God’s word with confidence while He extends His hand to heal in the name of Jesus. (Acts 4:29 – 30).

They are absolutely aware that it is the power of God through the name of Jesus that is the source of these signs and wonders.

Finally, when they had prayed, the building was shaken and they were once again filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke God’s word with boldness. Accordingly, the only way we can share God’s message is through the power of the Holy Spirit in us.

Steps to Growth and Faith

Therefore, what are the steps in the process of growth and faith as evidenced by this story?

  • First, we recognize that God is in control and we are to trust Him to guide us when we speak to other people while knowing that what that person wants may not be all that God has for him or her.
  • Second, making sure we have a repentant heart and a clear conscience so that we may clearly hear the voice of the Lord when He is leading.
  • Third, we learn that it is the power of the name of Jesus that makes us whole. It is not about us and our good works.
  • Forth, it is desirable for us to maintain a close relationship with the Lord through His word and by hearing His voice, so we can share with others the “signs and wonders” that we are experiencing.
  • Fifth, it is God “who works in us both to will and do His good pleasure” (Phil. 2:13).
  • Sixth, the only way we can truly share God’s love and His good news to others is through the power of the Holy Spirit in us.

The Mystery of Pain

After enduring pain in my shoulder (rotator cuff) for several weeks, my orthopedic specialist gave me a cortisone shot. The shot was more than just a “pinch,” as shots are usually called by medical caregivers, but I was grateful afterwards, for I could move my shoulder again without feeling like I had been stabbed with an ice-pick!

This experience with pain was in addition to my craniotomy last fall and the onset of migraine headaches.  Physical pain is bad enough, but emotional and mental pain can be just as bad, if not more perplexing and burdensome.

Anyone who has chronic pain of one kind or another is usually moved to ask, “Why?  Why do I have pain in my life?”

Years ago, I learned some answers to these questions by studying the disease of leprosy that appears so often in the Bible.

Leprosy, or Hansen’s Disease, is an infection caused by bacteria that are contracted  by direct contact or through the air by sneezes or coughs.  Leprosy is highly contagious, therefore, which explains the prohibitions given to lepers in the Bible to prevent the spread of the disease.

(Click here to read Leviticus 13 for a description of the disease and its symptoms, along with some of the restrictions placed on lepers.)

Leprosy bacteria multiply slowly, so the disease may take years to fully manifest, but when it does, the symptoms are very visible, especially on the skin.  Here are some of the symptoms:

  • Skin lesions that may be faded/discolored
  • Growths on the skin
  • Thick, stiff or dry skin
  • Severe pain
  • Numbness on affected areas of the skin
  • Muscle weakness or paralysis (especially in the hands and feet)
  • Eye problems that may lead to blindness
  • Enlarged nerves (especially those around the elbow and knee)
  • A stuffy nose
  • Nosebleeds
  • Ulcers on the soles of feet

(Click to see source.)

What About Pain?

When leprosy becomes active, which may take two-three years after initial exposure, it eventually attacks the nervous system, leading to numbness in the nerves on the skin and the loss of feeling or sensation on the hands and feet.

Read a fuller description here:

Many have thought leprosy to be a disease of the skin. It is better classified, however, as a disease of the nervous system because the leprosy bacterium attacks the nerves. Leprosy’s agent M. leprae is a rod-shaped bacterium related to the tuberculosis bacterium. Leprosy is spread by multiple skin contacts, as well as by droplets from the upper respiratory tracts, such as nasal secretions that are transmitted from person to person.

Its symptoms start in the skin and peripheral nervous system (outside the brain and spinal cord), then spread to other parts, such as the hands, feet, face, and earlobes. Patients with leprosy experience disfigurement of the skin and bones, twisting of the limbs, and curling of the fingers to form the characteristic claw hand. Facial changes include thickening of the outer ear and collapsing of the nose. (Source)

The worst danger from the bacteria arises, therefore, when a burn or another kind of injury occurs, for example, and the leper does not feel the injury due to the lack of sensation at the site: “The leprosy bacillus destroys nerve endings that carry pain signals; therefore patients with advanced leprosy experience a total loss of physical pain. When these people cannot sense touch or pain, they tend to injure themselves or be unaware of injury caused by an outside agent” (Source).

Pain’s Purpose

Imagine putting your hand on a very hot iron or woodstove and not feeling anything.  You may end up leaving your hand on the heat for quite a while, resulting in a terrible burn.  If you had felt the pain initially, you would have quickly acted to remove your hand.

Consequently, as a result of an inability to feel pain, the leper does not react quickly, so the injury becomes quite severe, leading to extreme damage to the body.

Leprosy: A Metaphor for Sin

Leprosy was so dreaded that lepers were shunned, and they were required to announce their presence to others and were forbidden from touching anyone to prevent the spread of the disease:

As for the leper who has the infection, his clothes shall be torn, and the hair of his head shall be uncovered, and he shall cover his mustache and cry, ‘Unclean! Unclean!’ He shall remain unclean all the days during which he has the infection; he is unclean. He shall live alone; his dwelling shall be outside the camp. (Leviticus 13:45-46)

Leprosy was so dreaded, and the commandments of God were so clear, that lepers were shunned. Lepers were declared to be “unclean.” To prevent the spread of the disease, lepers were required to announce their presence to others and were forbidden even from touching anyone else.  Being shunned must have led to extraordinarily painful emotional distress, a switch from one kind of pain to another.

Incurable by man, many believed God inflicted the curse of leprosy upon people for the sins committed. In fact, those with leprosy were so despised and loathed that they were not allowed to live in any community with their own people (Numbers 5:2). Among the sixty-one defilements of ancient Jewish laws, leprosy was second only to a dead body in seriousness. A leper wasn’t allowed to come within six feet of any other human, including his own family. The disease was considered so revolting that the leper wasn’t permitted to come within 150 feet of anyone when the wind was blowing. Lepers lived in a community with other lepers until they either got better or died. This was the only way the people knew to contain the spread of the contagious forms of leprosy. (Source)

Being shunned must have led to extraordinarily painful emotional distress, a switch from one kind of pain to another. The consequences of leprosy, therefore, are analogous to the consequences of sin.  When we are infected with sin in our lives, we become “unclean,” and our sin may even infect others with serious consequences.  Sin results in severe consequences in our lives, both physically and mentally.  Like leprosy, these consequences may take years to yield their results in mental distress and physical deformities.

Like the symptoms of leprosy, the consequences of sin in our lives may take years to yield their results in mental distress and physical deformities.  Yet, we should dread the symptoms of sin even more than those of leprosy, for the consequences of sin are death and eternal separation from God.

Jesus Cleanses the Leper

Jesus Christ, however, is the answer for both leprosy and sin, along with the resulting mental and physical deformities and anguish:

When Jesus came down from the mountain, large crowds followed Him. And a leper came to Him and bowed down before Him, and said, “Lord, if You are willing, You can make me clean.” Jesus stretched out His hand and touched him, saying, “I am willing; be cleansed.” And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. And Jesus said to him, “See that you tell no one; but go, show yourself to the priest and present the offering that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them.” (Matthew 8:1-4)

Jesus is willing to cleanse us wholly, in spirit, soul, and body.  He renews a right spirit within us and restores our souls.  Like King David, we may pray the following prayer in faith:

Hide Your face from my sins
And blot out all my iniquities.

Create in me a clean heart, O God,
And renew a steadfast spirit within me.
Do not cast me away from Your presence
And do not take Your Holy Spirit from me. (Psalms 51:9-11)

Jesus Himself, because of His love for us, is the One who restores our souls and cleanses us from all the consequences of sin.  See what the Apostle Peter wrote about the crucifixion of Christ:

And while being reviled, He did not revile in return; while suffering, He uttered no threats, but kept entrusting Himself to Him who judges righteously; and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed. For you were continually straying like sheep, but now you have returned to the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls. (I Peter 2:23-25)

While on the cross and before His ascension into Heaven, therefore, Jesus became our substitute, taking our sins upon Himself and cleansing us from all unrighteousness if we will only accept Him.  By faith (which is the “assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen” Hebrews 11:1), we may receive His ultimate cleansing in spirit, soul, and body, taking away our pain.

Today, we constantly seek ways to escape our pain, whether through cortisone shots, or pills, or certain “relaxation techniques” that are essentially occultic.  While we do not like the experience of pain in our lives, we should seek the causes of our pain and be thankful to a wise and loving God who gave us nerves that help us feel the pain of dangerous situations, thereby protecting us from further harm and disabilities.  And above all, we need to find our answer to pain in the forgiveness provided  by God and the salvation offered through the sacrifice of His Son, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.

 

Examining Ourselves Rightly

Introduction

The most difficult role for parents or Church leaders, in a similar context, is the role of one who must bring discipline and correction to the family or to the Church Body.  However, the Apostle Paul found himself in this role, as he describes it in his first letter to the Corinthian Church.  Since what follows is such a lengthy passage, we will examine it separately in parts.

Part I

In the first part Paul describes the problems that need to be corrected.  As Paul describes them, they consist of schisms and divisions in the Corinthian Church instead of solid unity:

But in giving this instruction, I do not praise you, because you come together not for the better but for the worse. For, in the first place, when you come together as a church, I hear that divisions exist among you; and in part I believe it. For there must also be factions among you, so that those who are approved may become evident among you.  (I Corinthians 11:17-19)

Clearly, Paul understands the sinful human nature, for he writes that these factions and divisions have occurred for an all-too-apparent reason:  those who believe themselves to be qualified to lead (those “who are approved”) also desire to be recognized as being in charge (“so that they may become evident among you”).  

Part II

In the second part of the passage taken from his letter, Paul describes an even more troubling problem in the Corinthian Church, one which was probably more prevalent among the believers as a whole:

Therefore when you meet together, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper, for in your eating each one takes his own supper first; and one is hungry and another is drunk. What! Do you not have houses in which to eat and drink? Or do you despise the church of God and shame those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you? In this I will not praise you. (I Corinthians 11:20-22)

When the believers in the Corinthian Church come together, Paul writes, they come to eat and drink, not to “remember” the Lord Jesus Christ’s sacrifice on the cross for their redemption from the consequences of their sins.  Instead, they are only concerned about filling their bellies and soothing themselves with alcohol.  Their desire to gorge themselves is so strong that they even compete with one another, leaving some with nothing, while others are bloated with bread and wine.  

Clearly, this description is nothing like the communion observances we have in most protestant churches in our culture today.  As a child, I was struck by the tiny pieces of unsalted crackers that were passed on a silver plate down the rows of pews by the deacons, along with the tiny cups filled with grape juice. There was no way, under the watchful eyes of my parents, I could have filled myself with such small portions of juice and crackers, simply because there wasn’t enough on the plate for anyone to take more than a minimal amount.  

We knew we weren’t sharing a meal. My mother taught me to gaze at the elements after they were passed, while I prayed and asked for forgiveness for my sins, not allowing myself to be distracted by anything around me or spilling what was in my tiny cup.

Part III

Therefore, in the next part of his letter, Paul describes how the Lord’s supper should be observed:

For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread; and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” In the same way He took the cup also after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.” For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes. (I Corinthians 11:23-26)

Their purpose in gathering to partake of the bread and wine, therefore, was definitely not to gluttonously fill themselves with bread and wine, but instead to remember what Christ accomplished as the “Lamb of God” by sacrificing His broken body and His blood, as well as to proclaim the victory of His death and resurrection until He comes again.  

For both elements of this Last Supper, the bread and the wine, Jesus asked that they remember Him, His broken body and His sacrificial blood that was spilled for them. And He asked also that they continue to remember Him as often as they celebrated the Last Supper in the future, thereby proclaiming His death and the results of His sacrifice until He comes again.

Part IV

In this next portion of Paul’s exhortation, the Apostle explains not only the proper attitudes the believers in Corinth needed to have while partaking of the Lord’s Supper, but also the proper behaviors they should have as they drink and eat:

27 So then whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in a way that is unworthy [of Him] will be guilty of [profaning and sinning against] the body and blood of the Lord. 28 But a person must [prayerfully] examine himself [and his relationship to Christ], and only when he has done so should he eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29 For anyone who eats and drinks [without solemn reverence and heartfelt gratitude for the sacrifice of Christ], eats and drinks a judgment on himself if he does not [a]recognize the body [of Christ]. 30 That [careless and unworthy participation] is the reason why many among you are weak and sick, and a number sleep [in death]. 31 But if we evaluated and judged ourselves honestly [recognizing our shortcomings and correcting our behavior], we would not be judged. 32 But when we [fall short and] are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined [by undergoing His correction] so that we will not be condemned [to eternal punishment] along with the world. (AMP Version: I Corinthians 11:27-32)

To sum up these admonitions, Paul cautions believers not to eat of the bread or drink from the cup in an “unworthy” manner.  If they do, he writes, they will bring judgment upon themselves for “sinning against” (See above AMP v. 27) the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus, resulting in weakness, sickness, or even death (v. 30).

By following and acting upon these admonitions, we will neither incur the consequences of sinning against the Lord’s Body and Blood, nor be “condemned to eternal punishment along with all non-believers” (See v. 32 above):

Instead, Paul’s remedy is that believers need to “judge themselves rightly” so they will not be judged or condemned along with the world (v. 32).  

Part V

Paul’s final teaching on this subject, therefore, entails that believers should “wait for one another,” eating at home rather than using the elements of the Last Supper to satisfy their hunger.  Avoid the temptation, he writes, so that the whole body does not come together “for judgment” (v. 34):  Here is the definitive passage:

So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another. If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that you will not come together for judgment. The remaining matters I will arrange when I come. (I Corinthians 11:33-34)

Eating and Drinking the Lord’s Supper Unworthily

What does the Apostle Paul mean when he counsels believers not to eat and drink of the Lord’s Supper “unworthily,” or in an “unworthy manner”?  (See I Corinthians 11:27 in Part IV above.)  

The secret to solving this mystery lies, I believe, in the consequences and ramifications of the incurred judgments, which are “weakness, sickness, or even death.”  Paul writes that we must “judge” and “examine” ourselves  to ensure that we are not
“sinning” against the Body and Blood of Jesus, a sin that may incur weakness, sickness, or even death.  (I Corinthians 11:30)

Most clearly, since Paul is writing to believers in the Corinthian Church, a person cannot participate fully in the Lord’s Supper unless he or she has become a true believer in Jesus Christ and has accepted by faith what He accomplished as the “Lamb of God,” the ultimate and final sacrifice for the sin that separates us from God, our Holy Father.  

This is why even churches that practice “open communion,” or, in other words, churches that allow even non-members of the church to participate in the Lord’s Supper, will most often still warn everyone who partakes to ensure they have committed their hearts and lives to Him, through faith in Jesus Christ’s sacrifice to avoid the results of taking the communion unworthily.  

Paul’s teachings and corrections are definitely directed in his letter to those who have indeed submitted to the Lordship of Jesus, having committed their hearts and lives to Him and become members of the Church of Corinth.  Therefore, we must assume that his injunctions and warnings apply to everyone in the True Church, including all believers in the Church today as well.  

It seems wise to ask, what are we missing from Paul’s message to the whole Church?  Why does it appear that many people today are weak, sick, or even dead?  Are we partaking of the Lord’s Supper unworthily?  Have we diminished the significance of the communion sacrament and disregarded the implications of not examining ourselves according to Christ’s own guidelines?

I believe the key to discovering the meaning of this mystery is found in the following passage from John’s Gospel:

After this, Jesus, knowing that all things had already been accomplished, to fulfill the Scripture, said, “I am thirsty.” A jar full of sour wine was standing there; so they put a sponge full of the sour wine upon a branch of hyssop and brought it up to His mouth. Therefore when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished!” And He bowed His head and gave up His spirit. (John 19:28-30)

This is what Dr. Michael Brown writes about John’s description of Christ’s final moments on the cross:

What did Jesus mean when He uttered the words “It is finished!” in John 19:30?

The phrase actually translates one word in Greek, tetelestai, from the root teleō, which means “to finish, fulfill.”

Significantly, this specific form of the verb, tetelestai, is only found twice in the entire New Testament, both times in John 19.

In fact, the two occurrences of tetelestai are found within three verses of each other: “After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), ‘I thirst.’ … When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, ‘It is finished,’ and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit” (John 19:28, 30).

Do you see that? Although the verb teleō occurs 28 times in the New Testament, the form tetelestai is found only twice, and those two occurrences are in the same context, right next to each other, making the meaning perfectly clear.

Jesus was saying, “Mission accomplished! Everything that had to be done has been done! It is finished!” (Source: Click Here to View Brown’s article)

First of all, therefore, Jesus asks for something to quench His thirst in order to “fulfill the Scripture.”  See the prophecy in the Psalms:

They also gave me gall for my food
And for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink. (Psalms 69:21)

Then, when He has received the sour wine from the sponge held up to Him, He says, “It is finished!” and “gives up His spirit” in death.  

We learn from this passage that, even on the cross, Jesus was intent on ensuring that all of the prophecies found in the Old Testament concerning His atoning death were fulfilled and “accomplished” before He gave up His life.  Jesus then declared that His mission was finished: He had completed all that had been prophesied and that His Father had planned in sending His only Son to be sacrificed.

What is probably missing in our participations in the times for ‘rembrance” during communion, therefore, concerns our inability to acknowledge and receive the fulness of what Christ came to accomplish on the Cross.  These relate to the three conditions that result from our not holding fast in faith to what He “finished”: His triumph over weakness, sickness, and death on our behalf.  

In Remembrance of Him

One passage in the Book of Hebrews states this idea in specific terms:

Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin. Therefore, let us draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need. (Hebrews 4:14-16)

Clearly, many believers in the Early Church, just as in churches today, needed to be reminded about “remembering,” or the acknowledgement in faith and the appropriation of the magnificent provisions of Christ’s sacrifice on the Church’s behalf.  What does this mean?

Particularly as we “remember” Christ’s ultimate sacrifice, we need to focus on receiving “mercy and finding grace in times of need” (Hebrews 4:16). Since Jesus Himself was tempted just as we are, yet He did not fall into sin, we need to identify with the One who overcame all of the consequences of all sin.  

Jesus could vicariously sympathize with us, when the sins of the world were placed on Him, while identifying Himself as the One who took the punishment for all of our sins, receiving in His own Body on the Cross the consequences of sin as He suffered and died, even to the point of being “forsaken” by His Father because of those sins (see Mark 14:34 and Matthew 27:46).  

While in the Garden praying, Jesus knew not only what He would suffer physically on the cross, but also what He would endure while having the sins of the world placed on Him.  Imagine what He must have experienced, for He was without sin and knew no sin, yet suddenly while on the Cross He felt the sins of a world filled with wickedness placed on Himself, the spotless Lamb of God.

As a result of His willingness to receive this judgment, the consequences of sin were done away with, including weakness, sickness, and even death.  Therefore, Jesus Himself, as our propitiation for our sin, endured weakness, sickness, and death for the first time in His life, suffering not only death and entombment, but also three days and nights in Hell itself.  Is it any wonder why He asked His Father. . . 

“Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done.” (Luke 22:42)

Jesus was in such agony over what He would experience and endure that He suffered from hematidrosa (or “sweating blood”) (See definition of “hematidrosa” caused by extreme stress“). Yet even knowing what He would experience, He was willing to take our place and drink the cup offered to Him.  

Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. (I Peter 2:24)

And beforehand, during the Last Supper with His disciples, He broke the bread and offered the cup to demonstrate to them how they could remember His sacrifice on their behalf.  Consequently, we today have also been instructed how to identify with Jesus’s offer of redemption through His own death, finding eternal life also through His resurrection.

Conclusion

Whenever I send a package via United Parcel Service, I receive a “tracking number” so that I can determine the progress of the package as it is being delivered.

In the same way, the Lord has given us a means of tracking our own progress as Christians in the ways of the Lord.  We daily need to examine and judge ourselves completely, while identifying with Jesus Christ and holding fast our confession of faith.

However, we also need especially to remember His accomplished work on the cross as we take communion, in order not to be judged and suffer the weaknesses, sickness, and even death that have fallen on some believers. We need to judge ourselves continually and appropriate by faith all that the Lord Jesus purchased for us when He drank the cup that was given to Him according to the will of His Father in Heaven.

Marveling at the Miraculous by Jan Jenkins

The Miracle

As Peter and John are going to the temple to pray, at the temple gate they hear a man calling to them.  They see a forty-year-old lame man who depends on handouts to support his existence in his disabled condition.  What the man doesn’t realize is that his condition might actually be changed so that he need not continue to beg.

Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the ninth hour, the hour of prayer. And a man who had been lame from his mother’s womb was being carried along, whom they used to set down every day at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful, in order to beg alms of those who were entering the temple. When he saw Peter and John about to go into the temple, he began asking to receive alms.

But Peter, along with John, fixed his gaze on him and said, “Look at us!” And he began to give them his attention, expecting to receive something from them. But Peter said, “I do not possess silver and gold, but what I do have I give to you: In the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene—walk!” And seizing him by the right hand, he raised him up; and immediately his feet and his ankles were strengthened. With a leap he stood upright and beganto walk; and he entered the temple with them, walking and leaping and praising God.

And all the people saw him walking and praising God; and they were taking note of him as being the one who used to sit at the Beautiful Gate of the temple to beg alms, and they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him.

This beautiful story is a reminder that God often sees a greater ailment that may need healing, one that is far more significant than what we may have been asking or praying for.

Peter stops and tells the man that he does not possess what the man is begging for, although he does have something far greater.  Peter says, “In the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene – walk!”  He then grabs the man’s right hand and raises him up.  Luke, the author of the book of Acts, writes that “immediately his feet and his ankles were strengthened” (Acts 3:7). 

Not only is the man strengthened, but also he begins “walking and leaping and praising God” (v.8).  People who saw him praising God were astounded because they knew something miraculous had happened, knowing that this was the man who had been carried daily to the temple gate to plead for sustenance.

At this point, Peter answers the amazement of the people by preaching his second recorded sermon.  He assures his listeners that faith in the name of Jesus is what has brought strength and healing to this man (Acts 3:16).  He then reminds the people that God’s prophets had foretold of “His Christ,” and that by repenting of their sins, they may experience Christ’s presence and  the “times of refreshing.”  Consequently, this is a reminder to us that we need to repent and make sure we can approach our Savior with a clear conscience and a clean heart.

Persecution

Next, the priests and Sadducees who have been also listening, see to it that John and Peter are arrested since this is the only immediate way they can keep them from speaking the truth.  In spite of Peter and John’s arrest, as many as 5,000 men who had heard the message believed!  When given the opportunity to testify the next day, Peter again states that the man (who is standing there next to Peter) was made well “by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead” (Acts 4:10).  He tells the high priest and the others of “high priestly descent” that there is salvation only through Jesus.  Peter’s words are a reminder that it is through the power of the mighty name of Jesus that we are made whole–not our good works, our power, our religious knowledge, or our social or political standing.

Peter’s message leaves these educated leaders speechless, and they are unable to reply.  They begin talking among themselves, trying to decide what should be done with Peter and the other men with him.

But when they had ordered them to leave the Council, they began to confer with one another, saying, “What shall we do with these men? For the fact that anoteworthy miracle has taken place through them is apparent to all who live in Jerusalem, and we cannot deny it. But so that it will not spread any further among the people, let us warn them to speak no longer to any man in this name.” (Acts 4:15-17)

In a feeble effort to control Peter and John, they command them not to teach any more about Jesus.  The apostles answer by saying that it is impossible for them to stop speaking about what they have “seen and heard.”

Sharing With Others

It is natural for us to want to share our experiences with others, whether they involve a fabulous vacation, a newborn baby, or career advancement.  How much greater is the urge to share the good news of salvation and healing to those who are seeking answers or to those in perilous situations.

So, what did the officials do?  They “threatened them further” (Acts 4:21), but their threats were empty. They couldn’t punish Peter and John because of the crowds of people glorifying God!

When the apostles were finally released, they went back to their companions to report what had happened to them.  Additionally, they prayed together asking to speak God’s word with confidence while He extends His hand to heal in the name of Jesus.  (Acts 4:29 – 30).  They are absolutely aware that it is the power of God through the name of Jesus that is the source of these signs and wonders.

Finally, when they had prayed, the building was shaken and they were once again filled with the Holy Spirit and continued to speak God’s word with boldness.  In the same way, the only way we can fully share God’s message is through the power of the Holy Spirit in us.

Therefore, what are the steps we must take to ensure our own growth and faith, as evidenced by this story?

  • First, recognize that God is in control, and we need to trust Him to guide us when we speak to others, knowing that what that person wants may not be all that God has for him or her.
  • Second, make sure we have a repentant heart and a clear conscience so that we may clearly hear the voice of the Lord when He is leading.
  • Third, the power of the name of Jesus is what makes us whole.  It is not about us and our good works.
  • Fourth, maintain a close relationship with the Lord through His word and by hearing His voice, so we can share with others the “signs and wonders” that we are experiencing.
  • Fifth, it is God “who works in us both to will and do His good pleasure” (Phil. 2:13).
  • Sixth, the only way we can truly share God’s love and His good news to others is through the power of the Holy Spirit in us.

 

Paul’s Thorn, Part II

 

Why Wasn’t Paul Healed?

Many Bible teachers have taught that Paul’s “thorn in the flesh” was a physical disease, in spite of the inconsistencies and false logic of this conclusion.  I believe these teachers have perpetuated this false teaching only to buttress another false teaching:  The gifts of healing passed away when the disciples and early apostles passed away.  

If Paul was sick and God refused to heal him even after three requests, why should we believe that God wants to heal us?  Why encourage people to believe for healing when it isn’t God’s will to heal today?  Isn’t that why we have doctors and physicians?

Clearly not everyone is healed every time there is sickness or disease, even though prayers are offered, though here is the promise the Apostle James gives the Church in his letter:

Is anyone among you sick? Then he must call for the elders of the church and they are to pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer offered in faith will restore the one who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up, and if he has committed sins, they will be forgiven him. (James 5:14-15)

In spite of this promise, many churches no longer even anoint the sick or pray for healing, having decided that this verse is no longer relevant today in a post-apostolic “dispensation.” It is significant, however, that no denial of the forgiveness of sins promise is mentioned.  Why, when both are stated in the same passage, is forgiveness still a valid promise when healing is not?

Experience tells us, however, that not everyone is healed or appears to be healed, at least not in the ways we desire.  Is it because God wants us to be sick, indeed even causes us to be sick in order to keep us humble?  Isn’t that why Paul’s eye disease wasn’t healed?  

However, you will recall that the thorn Paul refers to was a “messenger of Satan,” not a messenger of God Himself.

I’m amazed at how many Bible teachers preach that the Bible is the “inerrant” Word of God, without error or fault in all its teaching, yet they delete or omit some of the verses in the Bible because they believe they no longer apply to today. 

If this passage in James is part of the infallable and inerrant Word of God, therefore, why are some believers not healed according to the affirmative promise in James and other passages in the Bible?   

One reason is that we don’t believe in the first place, or we just give up, especially when our prayers aren’t answered right away.  We forget that though miracles may be instantaneous, healing takes time and we need patience.  Even Jesus the Son of God could do few mighty works in His own home town because of the unbelief of the people who lived there.

All too often, Paul’s “thorn in the flesh” is used to confirm this kind of unbelief.  How many times have we heard people say,”My back pain is just a thorn in the flesh God has given me to teach me something,” or something similar?  

In the World You Shall Have Tribulation

Sufficient evidence exists to oppose the meaning of Paul’s “thorn in the flesh” as referring to an eye disease, or “opthalmia.” 

First, Paul describes the thorn as a “messenger of Satan,” a description that seems to reveal cogniznce and intent.  Paul says he implored the Lord three times to be delivered of this messenger, but the Lord responded with, “My grace is sufficient for you, for power is perfected in weakness” (II Corinthians 12:9).  What is weakness but a condition that demands help and assistance in its worst forms?  

Paul then describes the weaknesses that, taken together, comprise the essence of what the thorn is:

Most gladly, therefore, I will rather boast about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. Therefore I am well content with weaknesses, with insults, with distresses, with persecutions, with difficulties, for Christ’s sake; for when I am weak, then I am strong.  (II Corinthians 12:9)

We might summarize all of these conditions under the terms “tribulations,” and even more specifically, “persecutions.” These are condition we have not been redeemed from.  In fact, Jesus declared that we would all suffer similar kinds of persecutions:

Jesus answered them, “Do you now believe? Behold, an hour is coming, and has already come, for you to be scattered, each to his own home, and to leave Me alone; and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with Me. These things I have spoken to you, so that in Me you may have peace. In the world you have tribulation, but take courage; I have overcome the world.” (John 16:31-33)

The word “tribulations” in Paul’s message to the churches in Galatia, quoted in Acts 14, however, is significant, for it further affirms what is the true meaning of this metaphor:

The next day he went away with Barnabas to Derbe. After they had preached the gospel to that city and had made many disciples, they returned to Lystra and to Iconium and to Antioch, strengthening the souls of the disciples, encouraging them to continue in the faith, and saying, “Through many tribulations [emphasis mine] we must enter the kingdom of God.” When they had appointed elders for them in every church, having prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord in whom they had believed. (Acts 14:18-23)

 

The Thorn in Context

Consider the following passages, all of which contain references to thorns.  See if you can find similarities in meanings:

  • But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you, then it shall come about that those whom you let remain of them will become as pricks in your eyes and as thorns in your sides, and they will trouble you in the land in which you live. (Numbers 33:55)
  • Know with certainty that the Lord your God will not continue to drive these nations out from before you; but they will be a snare and a trap to you, and a whip on your sides and thorns in your eyes, until you perish from off this good land which the Lord your God has given you. (Joshua 23:13)
  • Now the angel of the Lord came up from Gilgal to Bochim. And he said, “I brought you up out of Egypt and led you into the land which I have sworn to your fathers; and I said, ‘I will never break My covenant with you, and as for you, you shall make no covenant with the inhabitants of this land; you shall tear down their altars.’ But you have not obeyed Me; what is this you have done?  Therefore I also said, ‘I will not drive them out before you; but they will become as thorns in your sides and their gods will be a snare to you.’” When the angel of the Lord spoke these words to all the sons of Israel, the people lifted up their voices and wept. So they named that place Bochim; and there they sacrificed to the Lord.  (Judges 2:1-5)
  • And the word of the Lord came to me saying, “Son of man, set your face toward Sidon, prophesy against her and say, ‘Thus says the Lord God,

    “Behold, I am against you, O Sidon,
    And I will be glorified in your midst.
    Then they will know that I am the Lord when I execute judgments in her,
    And I will manifest My holiness in her.
    “For I will send pestilence to her
    And blood to her streets,
    And the wounded will fall in her midst
    By the sword upon her on every side;
    Then they will know that I am the Lord.

    And there will be no more for the house of Israel a prickling brier or a painful thorn from any round about them who scorned them; then they will know that I am the Lord God.”   Ezekiel 28:20-24)

A careful and thoughtful analysis of these passages shows that they all relate the “thorn” to adversaries and instruments of persecution.  The connection is clear, therefore:  The thorn in the flesh Paul is writing about represents the constant and unrelenting persecution Paul endured in his ministry.

Readers of the stories on the life of the Apostle Paul are usually astounded at the many instances of persecution in his life. He experiences constant opposition to his ministry and teachings, both physical and mental.  Instead of being an instrument of persecution against the Church himself, as he was in the early chapters in the Acts of the Apostles, Paul became the one who was persecuted, receiving the most severe and painful forms of physical torture imaginable, including being stoned and left for dead, beatings, and public ridicule.  

 

Why Did God Allow the Persecution of Paul?

Paul relates in his defense to the Jews in Jerusalem that he was the one who persecuted those who followed Christ (the “Way”):

I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and putting both men and women into prisons, as also the high priest and all the Council of the elders can testify. From them I also received letters to the brethren, and started off for Damascus in order to bring even those who were there to Jerusalem as prisoners to be punished.    (Acts 22:4-5)

After his conversion, however, he became the object of persecution.  He relates to the Corinthian Church, for example, the following list:

To this present hour we are both hungry and thirsty, and are poorly clothed, and are roughly treated, and are homeless; and we toil, working with our own hands; when we are reviled, we bless; when we are persecuted, we endure; when we are slandered, we try to conciliate; we have become as the scum of the world, the dregs of all things, even until now.  (I Corinthians 4:11-13)

He continues to list the persecutions he has endured in his Second Letter to the Corinthians:

But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, so that the surpassing greatness of the power will be of God and not from ourselves; we are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not despairing; persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; always carrying about in the body the dying of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our body.  For we who live are constantly being delivered over to death for Jesus’ sake, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our mortal flesh. So death works in us, but life in you.  (II Corinthians 4:7-12)

While the source of these persecutions appears to be nonbelievers, those people who opposed the teachings and worship of the Lord, the primary source is demonic, a messenger of Satan sent to inflict persecution on the chosen people of God.

It is little wonder, then, that Paul asks the Lord to have this thorn of persecution removed from him.  The Lord’s response to him in contained in the following message:

Because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, for this reason, to keep me from exalting myself, there was given me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me—to keep me from exalting myself! Concerning this I implored the Lord three times that it might leave me.

Paul was blessed with the manifold wisdom and revelations of God in order to communicate the full plan of salvation and sanctification of the Lord, much of which was in great contrast to the legalism and obligations of the Old Covenant.  Paul consequently became the focus of extreme persecution to keep this Good News of the Gospel from being shared, not only with his fellow Jews, but also the gentiles.  And through his letters to the churches, Paul’s imparted wisdom is still being used to share the love of Jesus Christ to the whole world. 

 

What About Me?  Will I Ever Have a Thorn in the Flesh?

Paul explains why the thorn in the flesh is present in his life:  “Because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, for this reason, to keep me from exalting myself, there was given me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me—to keep me from exalting myself!”  (II Corinthians 12:7).  

No one today who refrains from self-exaltation would make such a claim as having such a thorn in the flesh as the one Paul endured.  

However, Paul did explain to his disciple Timothy that persecution will follow all who desire to follow Christ and seek to proclaim His gospel:

Now you followed my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, patience, love, perseverance, persecutions, and sufferings, such as happened to me at Antioch, at Iconium and at Lystra; what persecutions I endured, and out of them all the Lord rescued me! Indeed, all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. But evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived.  (2 Timothy 3:10-12)

Unless someone today can compare the manifest spiritual revelations or evangelical accomplishments with those of the Apostle Paul, there is no true basis for claiming to have a “thorn in the flesh” as so many people tend to do   People do so because although they have prayed, God has not apparently answered their prayers, particularly for healing from some sickness or disease.

As we have discovered, however, Paul’s thorn was not a physical infirmity in spite of the word “infirmities” in II Corinthians 11:30:  “If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine infirmities.”

We must take the words Paul uses in context to avoid misinterpretations.  The word “infirmities,” however, is better translated “weaknesses” or “persecutions,” all of which are listed in the previous verses in this same chapter:

Are they servants of Christ?—I speak as if insane—I more so; in far more labors, in far more imprisonments,beaten times without number, often in danger of death. Five times I received from the Jews thirty-nine lashes. Three times I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a night and a day I have spent in the deep.  have been on frequent journeys, in dangers from rivers, dangers from robbers, dangers from my countrymen, dangers from the Gentiles, dangers in the city, dangers in the wilderness, dangers on the sea, dangers among false brethren; I have been in labor and hardship, through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure. Apart from such external things, there is the daily pressure on me of concern for all the churches. Who is weak without my being weak? Who is led into sin without my intense concern?  (II Corinthians 11:23-29)

Indeed, an amplified context for this word is in the next chapter (none of which exist in the original text), for Jesus Christ is said to have been crucified because of “weakness”:

 For indeed He [Jesus] was crucified because of weakness, yet He lives because of the power of God. For we also are weak in Him, yet we will live with Him because of the power of God directed toward you.  (II Corinthians 13:4)

 

Conclusion

Paul tells Timothy that “all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.”  While we may not all have the kinds of persecution and weaknesses that Paul experienced, we all will be persecuted if we will only live a life of visible testimony.

cjenkins.newsong@gmail.com

Paul’s Thorn, Part I

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More Than Just a Splinter!

For the first five years of my life, I lived in a town surrounded by a desert.   And even in my young adult years, I lived with desert environments nearby.  I will never forget viewing the cactus varieties at the Botanical Gardens just a mile or two from my house, and I especially recall the many cactus plants growing in the yards of neighbors, mainly because I was painfully stuck a few times by thorns on the way to see a friend.

The thorn is an especially vivid image in people’s minds, mainly because of the danger and pain it may bring.  It’s not surprising that the Apostle Paul would choose such an image to describe his condition in his letter to the Corinthians:

Because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, for this reason, to keep me from exalting myself, there was given me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me—to keep me from exalting myself!  Concerning this I implored the Lord three times that it might leave me.  And He has said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for power is perfected in weakness.” Most gladly, therefore, I will rather boast about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. Therefore I am well content with weaknesses, with insults, with distresses, with persecutions, with difficulties, for Christ’s sake; for when I am weak, then I am strong.  (II Corinthians 12:7-10)

Our understanding of Paul’s meaning in this passage, especially as it concerns the metaphor of the thorn, has been much debated in the Church, one indicator that the meaning is a “mystery.”  A perfect topic for this Blog!

God wants to reveal His secrets to us if we are spiritually discerning.  However, we must use exegesis (i.e. out of), not isogesis (i.e. into).  We must take the meaning from the passage of Scripture, as well as its context in the whole of Scripture (out of), not impose our own meaning on the text (into).  In this Blog, we are seeking God’s wisdom, not imposing our own thoughts and beliefs on God’s message.  

Here are some of the more obvious examples of interpretations that are the opposite, merely attempts to promote a particular agenda (which we will explore in Part II):

  • Paul suffered from some acute form of bodily disease. Those who argue this position suggest such diseases as  malaria, Malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, and chronic ophthalmia. 
  • The most common disease mentioned is acute ophthalmia, said to originate when the light which flashed round him at Damascus.    (See http://biblehub.com/commentaries/pulpit/2_corinthians/12.htm)
  • Some other theories of the thorn’s meaning include temptation, migraines, epilepsy, and a speech disability.
  • Some even say that the thorn refers to a person inspired by Satan who sought to discredit Paul and his ministry.  One such man was Alexander the coppersmith, who did Paul “a great deal of harm” (2 Timothy 4:14).   
  • Others theorize that the exact nature of Paul’s thorn is deliberately vague because Paul wanted it to apply to any difficulty Christians may face.    (http://www.gotquestions.org/Paul-thorn-flesh.html)
  • Finally, those arguing that Paul refers to his conflict with sensual passion, citing Romans 7:8, Romans 7:23,  and I Corinthians 9:27. 

Eye Disease

One of the most troubling of these interpretations of the thorn is the idea that the thorn is the “acute opthalmia” Paul supposedly had as a result of his blindness on the Road to Damascus.  

Reading the account in Acts Chapter 9, read that as Paul  was struck blind by the light of Christ as he was traveling to Damascus to persecute the Jewish Christians,

Suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him;  and he fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?” And he said, “Who are You, Lord?” And He said, “I am Jesus whom you are persecuting, but get up and enter the city, and it will be told you what you must do.” The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice but seeing no one. Saul got up from the ground, and though his eyes were open, he could see nothing; and leading him by the hand, they brought him into Damascus. And he was three days without sight, and neither ate nor drank.  (Act 9:3-9)

This passage is used not only to attempt to explain what Paul’s thorn was, but also how it came to plague him later in life. Additional evidence for this view is provided from Galatians 4:15, where Paul says, “Where then is that sense of blessing you had? For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.”  Advocates of this view believe that Paul’s condition was so serious and apparent that the Galatians would gladly have given him their own eyes in gratitude for giving them the Gospel.

As further evidence for this eye disease theory, it is submitted that Paul appeared to use his helpers to take Paul’s dictation of at least some of his epistles (an amanuensis). One person mentioned is Tertius, who copied the book of Romans, most likely from Paul’s dictations.  Tertius even added his own greeting to the church in Rome (see 16:22).  In addition, Paul added salutations with his own hands (see I Corinthians 16:21 and II Thessalonians 3:17), and he wrote his own words with large print, as he writes in Galatians 6:11: “See with what large letters I am writing to you with my own hand.”

In opposition to these theories are two arguments.  

First, the bolt of light was not a “messenger of Satan” but a message from Jesus Christ:

As he was traveling, it happened that he was approaching Damascus, and suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him; and he fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?” And he said, “Who are You, Lord?” And He said, “I am Jesus whom you are persecuting, but get up and enter the city, and it will be told you what you must do.” (Act 9:3-6)

Second, we see clear proof in the Book of Acts that Paul is healed of his blindness after his stunning experience on the Damascus road. Jesus commands a very fearful, reluctant Ananias to go to Saul, the enemy of the believers in Damascus. Ananias is instructed to administer the Holy Spirit to Saul, to heal Saul’s blindness, and give him instructions for the future, saying, “for I will show him how much he must suffer for My name’s sake:  

So Ananias departed and entered the house, and after laying his hands on him said, “Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus, who appeared to you on the road by which you were coming, has sent me so that you may regain your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit.” And immediately there fell from his eyes something like scales, and he regained his sight, and he got up and was baptized; and he took food and was strengthened.  (Acts 9:17-19)

In further opposition to this theory, therefore, surely those whom the Lord heals are healed indeed!   Therefore, diagnosing Paul with chronic eye disease seems incorrect.  Even supposing an aging apostle who may be experiencing far-sightedness seems a more likely explanation for his large letters, just as some people need large-print Bibles!  

Another possibility for Paul’s use of an amanuensis is the fact that Paul was not writing in his native language, especially in his letter to the Galatian people who were Celtic in origin.  Perhaps Paul was not as familiar with their script as he was with other cities forms of writing, and he wanted his letter to be legible to them.

Finally, the results of Paul’s thorn were intended to diminish Paul’s pride, to help him realize that the many revelations given to him were a result of God’s grace in his life, not a consequence of his own abilities or insights.

When Paul writes to the Galatian Churches, reminding them of their gratitude to him for sharing the Gospel with them, he says, “For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me”  (Galatians 4:15). He indeed may be referring to a physical infirmity he had, but it would not be the one he obtained on the Road to Damascus. Instead, he only recently had been stoned and left for dead:

But Jews came from Antioch and Iconium, and having won over the crowds, they stoned Paul and dragged him out of the city, supposing him to be dead. But while the disciples stood around him, he got up and entered the city. (Acts 14:19)

This story continues to describe Paul’s journey with Barnabus to the other cities in Galatia, leaving them with a message that is quite significant:

The next day he went away with Barnabas to Derbe. After they had preached the gospel to that city and had made many disciples, they returned to Lystra and to Iconium and to Antioch, strengthening the souls of the disciples, encouraging them to continue in the faith, and saying, “Through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of God.” When they had appointed elders for them in every church, having prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord in whom they had believed. (Acts 14:18-23)

Paul was stoned and left for dead in Lystra, a city of Galatia. The next day Paul walked to Derbe, another city of Galatia, and began preaching the good news of Christ to them.   Most likely, Paul may have had runny, puffy eyes, along with multiple cuts and bruises, but they were not the result of some disease. They were the result of having just been stoned.

 

Part II

In the next article in this series, some reasons why these dubious interpretations are taught will be explained, and a more convincing understanding of Paul’s thorn will be provided.

Cactus

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